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We are unable to determine the precision with which our model constrains this parameter. The basic trend of increasing radial velocity RV with distance is apparent in both models, even though they are constructed quite differently. The most likely value we obtained using the optimal LMC mass was Observational estimates of the luminosity in this band L K are based on a particular distance to each target. A similar challenge with high-velocity objects also exists in some systems far outside the LG.

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This may be a consequence of the 2D models treating the LG as filled with matter at a density equal to the cosmic mean value. As a result, the present velocity of a galaxy at a known position is not very sensitive to the og acting on it at 4613a times.

This is because M31 is almost directly ahead of the Sun in its orbit around the MW. Due to the effect of gravity, it provides a better fit to the 3D model within the LG. Part of the reason for motions deviating from axisymmetry with respect to the MW—M31 line is that the direction of this line has rotated slightly because the MW and M31 are not on a purely radial orbit. It does not need to solve discrete problems like how many times the MW and M31 have turned around.

This is one reason why we felt comfortable adding Cetus and DDO to our sample. Some differences with equation 4 are apparent.

As M31 is only one of our 34 target galaxies, our analysis should not change much overall. Previously, we treated the Universe as homogeneous except for a few massive particles. Thus, the required dark matter is thought to consist of an undiscovered stable particle, or at least one with a decay time longer than the age of the Universe e. In progress issue alert.

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A past encounter between them could also have led to the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies, some of which might have ended up bound to neither and moving away from the LG at high speed.

The nature of these forces might be better understood if we had an idea of the space—time location where they acted. In this case, the magnitude of the effect is not known so well, making it more useful to focus on its sign ,g this depends only on the sky positions of the relevant objects. Citing articles via Web of Science 8.

This is especially true with DDOwhich is closer to M Interestingly, a more recent estimate preferred a lower value of To a lesser extent, it is also the case for IC Seems to be really new Media.

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Our algorithm advances trajectories using a fourth-order Runge—Kutta method based on an adaptive but quantized timestep, ensuring that the positions of the massive particles are available when needed. Galaxy positions are shown relative to the MW—M31 line. Tucana is one of the nearest galaxies with an unusual GRV in our analysis. There was some difficulty in matching all the data then available. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.

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Such fast motions could lead to very powerful gravitational slingshot encounters. None the less, gravitational slingshot interactions with these objects could well lead to high GRVs, as occurs close to the LG barycentre bottom panel of Fig. It is straightforward to consider all the LG target galaxies in our sample, not just those substantially discrepant with our best-fitting model.

The range of published distances to NGC is wider than their formal uncertainties, but the most accurate one based on Cepheid variables is 1. View large Download slide. Once the trajectories of the massive objects were known, we used equation 4 to advance test particle trajectories. Thus, far from helping to resolve the high-velocity galaxy problem, consideration of the GA appears to make it worse. In this regard, it is helpful to define comoving positions x that do not change for particles in a homogeneous Universe.

The error budgets account for uncertainties in HRV and distance measurements of both targets. Thus, an object further from them has been decelerated less by their gravity. Instead, we penalize models that fail to enforce it. For these reasons, it is not too surprising that our 3D analysis prefers a higher Meven though this is counteracted slightly by the lower preferred distance to M